Goal 5: Gender Equality

Visualisations on global trends

This page provides a selection of visualisations on global trends for Sustainable Development Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. All visualisations use the latest official data from the United Nations SDG Global Database.

Target 5.1

End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

Indicators:

5.1.1Whether or not legal frameworks are in place to promote, enforce and monitor equality and non‑discrimination on the basis of sex

This indicator is measured through national-level assessments of legal frameworks, using a questionnaire covering four areas of law:

  1. Overarching legal frameworks and public life;
  2. Violence against women;
  3. Employment and economic benefits; and
  4. Marriage and family.

A score is given for each area (a number between 0 and 100) with 100 representing the full implementation of legal frameworks that promote, enforce and monitor gender equality.

95 countries are included in the latest data for 2020 which shows that countries scored on average 76% across all four areas, with countries in Europe, Northern America and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) scoring the highest.

Note that the regional groupings used in the visualisation above (and all other visualisations on this page with regional data) follow the UN regional classification for the Sustainable Development Goals.

Target 5.2

Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

Indicators:

5.2.1Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age
5.2.2Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence

The latest global data from 2018 shows that 1 out of 10 women and girls aged 15 or older have been subjected to violence (physical, sexual or psychological) by a current or former intimate partner in the last 12 months.

Data is not available to gauge trends over time at a global or regional level.

Data is not available for the second indicator of violence by persons other than intimate partners. A working group has been set up by the UN to gather data on this indicator. Earlier estimates by the WHO has indicated that 7% of women worldwide have been sexually assaulted by someone other than a partner at some point in their lives.

Target 5.3

Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation

Indicators:

5.3.1Proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18
5.3.2Proportion of girls and women aged 15-49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age

According to the UN, more than half a billion girls and women alive today were married in childhood. Globally, the prevalence of child marriage has been in decline. Yet, the most recent estimates from 2021 (covering a five-year period) show that about 1 in 5 women aged 20-24 were married or in a union before they were 18 years of age. 5% were so before the age of 15. The highest prevalence of child marriage was in sub-Saharan Africa and Central and Southern Asia. In the latter, rates have been in decline over the past two decades, while the development in other regions has been more stagnant.

Approximately 200 million girls and women alive today have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM), according to UN estimates. Data for this indicator is only available for a limited number of countries and areas. Recent trends points towards a moderate decrease, however, the prevalence is still high and for Northern Africa it stood at 74% in 2021.

Target 5.4

Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

Indicators:

5.4.1Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location

There is limited data available for this indicator at a global or regional level. According to a recent UN estimate, women on average spend about 2.5 times as many hours on unpaid domestic work and care work as men (based on data from 90 countries).

Target 5.5

Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life

Indicators:

5.5.1Proportion of seats held by women in (a) national parliaments and (b) local governments
5.5.2Proportion of women in managerial positions

A. National parliaments and local government

Despite progress over recent decades, women still only occupy 1 of 4 seats in national parliaments and 1 of 3 seats in local governments. The UN writes in its latest SDG 2022 status report that:

At this pace, it would take another 40 years for women and men to be represented equally in national parliaments.

All regions have seen, albeit at a slow pace, improvements in women's share of seats in national parliaments. As of 2022, the share was highest in i) Latin America and the Caribbean, followed by ii) Europe and Northern America and iii) Sub-Saharan Africa. At the local government level, data is only available from 2020-22 but shows that representation is generally higher than at the national level. In 2022, it was highest at 41% in Central and Southern Asia.

B. Managerial positions

Data for the second indicator on this target, show that women are also underrepresented at the managerial level. From 2000 to 2020, women's share only increased by a mere 3 percentage points to 28%. Shares have increased in all regions except Central and Southern Asia.

Importantly, the aggregate data presented here does not include information on the level of management, the type of managerial position, the size of the economic unit and so forth.

Target 5.6

By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

Indicators:

5.6.1Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care
5.6.2Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education

Not enough data is available on the first indicator to assess global and regional trends.

The second indicator is measured on a scale from 0 to 100 % where 100 means that national laws and regulations exist to guarantee women and men full and equal access to reproductive health care, information and education. The UN notes, importantly, that the indicator only measures the existence of laws and regulations, not their implementation.

Each country is measured through a set of 13 components divided into four thematic sections:

  • Maternity care
  • Contraception services
  • Sexuality education
  • HIV and HPV

Below is the average score for each section as well as the total, by SDG region. Data was collected between 2019 and 2021, covering 115 countries worldwide.

Countries have on average in place 76% of the laws and regulations that are needed to guarantee full and equal access. Laws and regulations concerning HIV and HPV had the strongest implementation (81%).

Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Northern and Western Asia as well as Latin America and the Caribbean had the lowest levels of implementation.

Target 5.a

Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws

Indicators:

5.a.1(a) Proportion of total agricultural population with ownership or secure rights over agricultural land, by sex; and (b) share of women among owners or rights-bearers of agricultural land, by type of tenure
5.a.2Proportion of countries where the legal framework (including customary law) guarantees women’s equal rights to land ownership and/or control

Insufficient data available for analysis of global or regional trends.

Target 5.b

Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women

Indicators:

5.b.1Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone, by sex

Insufficient data available for analysis of global or regional trends.

Target 5.c

Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

Indicators:

5.c.1Proportion of countries with systems to track and make public allocations for gender equality and women’s empowerment

The latest data from the UN, based on 105 countries, shows that only 26% of countries have systems in place to make and track allocations for gender equality. There are large differences in regional averages, with shares highest in Central and Southern Asia, where 63% of countries have such systems in place, and lowest in Latin America and the Caribbean (13%).

About the data

The data presented on global, regional, and national trends are from the UN SDG Global Database.

Changelog

  • First release 25 November 2022.

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