The report “Trends Shaping Education 2022” from the OECD is an excellent resource on global economic and social issues. Chapter 1 gives a long view on global economic growth and prosperity, with one of the figures (slightly adapted here) showing how in absolute terms, nearly the same number of people were living in extreme poverty in 2018 as in 1820. As total world population grew from 1.0 to 7.6 bn over the same period, the share of people living in extreme poverty declined from 76% in 1820 to 10% in 2018.
The original data is from Moatsos. M "Global Extreme Poverty: Past and Present", in OECD (2021) "How Was Life? Volume II".