Goal 4: Quality Education

Measuring progress in the Nordic countries

Work in progress: This page is under active development.

This page looks at the progress made by the Nordic countries towards Sustainable Development Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Each section starts by analysing global and regional trends, before looking at the latest data on the Nordic countries and their progress towards the 2030 targets. The data presented is gathered from the UN Sustainable Development Goals Global Database, unless otherwise noted.

The assessment of the Nordic countries is based on a recent OECD report analysing progress made towards the SDGs in all OECD-countries. The report provides a unique methodology for comparing progress across OECD-countries, tracking recent trends as well as estimating each country’s likelihood of reaching the 2030 targets.

Overview of targets

SDG Goal 4 consists of 10 targets. Click on the targets below to start exploring the data:

4.1Free primary and secondary education
4.2Equal access to quality pre-primary education
4.3Equal access to affordable technical, vocational, and higher education
4.4Increase the number of people with relevant skills for financial success
4.5Eliminate all discrimination in education
4.6Universal literacy and numeracy
4.7Education for sustainable development and global citizenship
4.aBuild and upgrade inclusive and safe schools
4.bExpand higher education scholarships for developing countries
4.cIncrease the supply of qualified teachers in developing countries

Target 4.1

By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes

Indicators:

4.1.1Proportion of children and young people (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics
4.1.2Completion rate (primary education, lower secondary education, upper secondary education)

Global trends

A. Proficiency levels

The latest data on proficiency levels in mathematics from 2020 show that at a global level, just below 50% had a achieved a minimum proficiency level in grade 2/3, at the end of primary school and at the end of lower secondary school.

Proficiency levels in reading where also at a similar level for those in grade 2/3, though increasing to 54% and 58% for end of primary and end of lower secondary respectively.

There are large regional variances in both reading and mathematics, across all educational levels. In Sub-Saharan Africa only a small minority of pupils reach the minimum proficiency levels.

Note that the regional groupings used in the visualisations above (and all other visualisations on this page with regional data) follows the UN regional classification for the Sustainable Development Goals.

B. Completion rate

The global average completion rate has increased for all educational levels measured by the target (primary, lower and upper secondary). As with proficiency levels, the data does not yet capture the effect of the pandemic on completion rates.

Completion rates vary significantly between regions, with Europe and North America achieving almost full completion across all the three educational levels. In contrast, completion rates in Sub-Saharan Africa is 64% in primary school, 45% in lower secondary and 27% in upper secondary.

The Nordics

Proficiency levels in mathematics and reading are measured by the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). None of the Nordic countries are close to reaching the goal of all pupils reaching the minimum proficiency level (PISA level 2), and the general trend is that they are moving further away from the target.

School completion rates in the Nordics are all at, or close to, 100% for lower secondary. For upper secondary school completion rates are highest in Sweden with 92% and lowest in Iceland with 70%. Note that the latest data available is from 2014.

With the target for proficiency levels and completion rates operationalised at 97%, none of the Nordics are close to achieving this target. Without a significant shift in trends, they are unlikely to reach it by 2030.

Target 4.2

By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

Indicators:

4.2.1Proportion of children aged 24–59 months who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex
4.2.2Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex

Global trends

For the first indicator, measuring whether children are developmentally on track, data is only available for 73 countries covering less than 50% of the world population. Data is therefore not presented here.

Participation rates in organised learning before the start of primary school stood at 75% in 2020, up from 65% in 2002, but at approximately the same level as in 2013-2019. There are substantial differences between countries and regions. This is an indicator which the UN expects the pandemic to have had a large negative effect, with early education facilities closed for more than a full school year in most countries.

The Nordics

All the Nordics have virtually full participation in organised learning before start of primary school. This target is therefore already reached and have a high likelihood of being reached also in 2030.

Target 4.3

By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

Indicators:

4.3.1Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex

Global trends

Data for this indicator is not available at a global or regional level.

The Nordics

All the Nordics are at or above the OECD average level for participation in lifelong learning which in 2018 stood at around 50%. Since 2007, the latest data available for 2016 shows that participation rates are decreasing in Sweden (and marginally in Finland), while they are increasing in Norway and Denmark. (Data for Iceland not available.)

Norway is currently the only country the OECD expects to reach the target rate by 2030. The target has been operationalised at 64% based on the level of the best performers in the OECD in 2016.

Target 4.4

By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

Indicators:

4.4.1Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill

Global trends

Data for this indicator is not available at a global or regional level.

The Nordics

ICT-skills are measured as the share of individuals that have undertaken certain computer-related activities in the last three months. Nine activities are measured:

  • Copying or moving a file or folder
  • Using copy and paste tools to duplicate or move information within a document
  • Sending e-mails with attached files (e.g. document, picture, video)
  • Using basic arithmetic formulas in a spreadsheet
  • Connecting and installing new devices (e.g. a modem, camera, printer)
  • Finding, downloading, installing and configuring software
  • Creating electronic presentations with presentation software (including images, sound, video or charts)
  • Transferring files between a computer and other devices
  • Writing a computer program using a specialized programming language

From 2020 the formulations will change to make the indicator independent of device used, encompassing more than computer related ICT-activities.

The chart below shows the most recent data for the Nordics, measured against the target set by the OECD for 2030. The OECD target has been set as the best performances observed in 2015 among OECD countries. Note that recent data is not available for the skills: 1) sending e-mails with attached files and 2) connecting and installing new devices.

Overall, the Nordics are currently behind the OECD target on most indicators. Taking into account trends over time, the OECD finds that with the exception of Finland, none of the Nordics are on track to reach the target by 2030. Note that due to data availability, it is not possible to make a trend assessment for Iceland.

Target 4.5

By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations

Indicators:

4.5.1Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflict-affected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated

Global trends

The target is tracked by a broad range of parity indices, expressed as the ratio of the value of the indicator for the likely more disadvantaged group to that of the likely more advantaged group. Such indices are available for many countries, but not at the aggregate world or regional level.

Nonetheless, the main conclusion in the UN SDG 2022 status report, based on the available data, is that there are persistent disparities in educational participation and outcomes. The report highlights the following three examples of inequalities:

  • Most countries with data have gender inequalities across several aspects of education, including lower secondary completion rate and minimum proficiency in reading.
  • 5 of 6 countries with data did not have parity between rural and urban areas for the lower secondary completion rate.
  • Almost no countries had parity in the lower secondary completion rate for between children from poorest and richest households.

The Nordics

In analysing 44 different data series, the OECD finds that "differences in gender, socio-economic background and location explain a significant share of the differences in education outcomes." As of 2018, no OECD country, including the Nordics, was able to prevent such differences affecting educational outcomes.

Notwithstanding the wealth of data on this topic, the OECD socio-economic partity index, based on PISA data, summarises the key findings on this target. It shows the impact of socio-economic inequalities on educational outcomes as a parity index, with 1 representing full parity. From 2006 to 2018, the impact has increased in Sweden, Iceland, and Finland from 2006 to 2018 (lower parity score.), while in Denmark and Norway the impact has decreased (higher parity score). Overall, none of the Nordics are on track to reach full parity by 2030.

Target 4.6

By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

Indicators:

4.6.1Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex

Global trends

The level of proficiency in literacy and numeracy is set as the share of the population scoring a level 2 or higher in the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The survey was last carried out in 2011/12 with over 40 countries/economies participating. A new cycle set to start in 2022/23. Literacy and numeracy skills are classified on scale from level 1 to 5, with 5 the highest.

No data available at global or regional level.

The Nordics

Data from the last PIAAC round in 2011/2012 showed that all Nordics had above 85% of the respondents at level 2 in numeracy and literacy. Yet, given the length of time passed since the last PIAAC round no further data or trend assessment is presented here.

Target 4.7

By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development

Indicators:

4.7.1Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education and (d) student assessment

Global trends

There is ongoing work to develop the indicator used to measure progress towards this target. Each of the four components of the indicator (policies, curricula, teacher education, and student assessment), are measured by a range of criteria which taken together are given a score between 0 and 1, where 1 entails full mainstreaming of the Global Citizenship Education (GCED) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). As of 2022, no data is currently available at global or regional level.

The Nordics

At a Nordic level, Denmark, Finland and Sweden took part in the first round of measuring this indicator (2017-2020). The data showed that as of now, only Sweden has fully mainstreamed GCED and ESD into their national education policies.

Given the lack of data over time, no trend assessment is given for this indicator. New data is set to be released during 2024.

Target 4.a

Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all

Indicators:

4.a.1Proportion of schools offering basic services, by type of service

Global trends

This indicator measured the share of schools offering access to the following basic services:

  • Electricity
  • Internet for pedagogical purposes
  • Computers for pedagogical use
  • Basic drinking water
  • Single-sex basic sanitation facilities
  • Basic handwashing facilities
  • Adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities

The most recent data, from 2020, shows that around three quarters of primary schools worldwide have access to drinking water, electricity, handwashing and single-sex sanitation. Coverage rates are higher for lower secondary and upper secondary schools. Access to computers, internet and adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities are much lower. At primary school level only half of world schools provide access to these services.

Although data is not available for all educational levels over time, the general trend is that access to basic services have increased since 2015, albeit slowly. For example, coverage rates for access to electricity in primary schools have increased from 65% to 75%, while coverage rates for access to internet at upper secondary schools have increased from 60% to 65%.

Regional data is limited, however the available data shows that coverage levels in least developed countries are significantly lower across all services.

The Nordics

Data on this indicator is only available for Denmark, Finland and Norway, which shows that all schools, across all education levels, provide full access to the basic services covered in this indicator. The OECD does not, however, provide an assessment of progress as the available data do not "provide information on how often computers are used or made available to students or on how well technology is integrated into learning practices."

Target 4.b

By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

Indicators:

4.b.1Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study

Global trends

While there is no set target level for 2030 for this indicator, data shows that the total volume of official development assistance (ODA) for scholarships increased from 440 million USD in 2006 to over 1.5 billion in 2020.

The Nordics

The latest data from the OECD shows that in 2019, Sweden was the largest provider of development assistance for scholarships with 26 million USD.

Given that there is no set target at country-level, no trend assessment is given for this indicator.

Target 4.c

By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States

Indicators:

4.c.1Proportion of teachers with the minimum required qualifications, by education level

Global trends

The latest data shows that the share of teacher with the minimum qualifications are between 13 and 21 percentage point lower in least developed countries than the world average. Regional data shows that Sub-Saharan Africa the lowest percentages of trained teachers of all regions (for which data is available).

There is no set target for 2030 for this indicator.

The Nordics

There is only limited data available to measure this indicator in OECD countries. As an alternative indicator, the OECD uses an indicator for the share of teachers who received in-service training in the last 12 months. The latest data from 2018 shows that all the Nordic countries had over 90 percent of teachers undertaking training in the last 12 months.

Given that there is no set target at country-level, no trend assessment is given for this indicator.

About the data

The data presented on global, regional and national trends are from the UN SDG Global Database and the OECD unless otherwise stated.

The assessment on the Nordic countries is based on the findings from a recent OECD report, published in April 2022. The OECD uses a three-tier classification for each target:

  • Target is achieved or on track to being achieved
  • Progress has been made, but is insufficient to meet the target
  • No progress or moving away from the SDG target

Note that the OECD methodology uses the current status on a target and calculates a likely trend towards 2030 based on recent progress. Thus, a country which is close to a target, but trending away from it, will be classified as "No progress or moving away from the SDG target". Conversely, a country which is currently further away from the target, but trending towards it (and has a high likelihood of reaching it before 2030), will be classified as "Target is achieved or on track to being achieved".

Changelog

  • Pilot release 6 July 2022

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